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Axial compressor

Delivering high efficiency across a broad operating range in high-volume, low-pressure downstream applications. The variable stator vane design is a key feature of our AN axial compressor. It enables a broad operating flow range and turndown to meet variable process air requirements with a fixed speed motor driver.

The number of blade rows can be tailored to fit process needs with typical compression ratio ranging from 3 to 7. The inner stator blade carrier is housed in an external, fabricated, horizontally split casing. The airfoil design, including rotor and stator blades, is standardized for all frame sizes. This robust design delivers optimum aerodynamic and mechanical behavior. Radial and thrust bearings are of the tilting-pad type similar to our centrifugal compressor designs.

Process connections can be either radial or axial inlet to meet plant layout needs. Our engineering expertise and extensive product portfolio allow us to leverage our compressor drivers, air filtration solutions, compressor train and auxiliary designs to provide high efficiency compressed air solutions for any application.

Skip to main content. Axial Compressors. Axial Compressors Delivering high efficiency across a broad operating range in high-volume, low-pressure downstream applications.

Ideal for refinery catalytic cracking, air compression, nitric acid and gas to liquids applications. Previous product.

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Load more. Let's stay in touch. Used under trademark license.Axial compressors are used in large-scale processes where a significant amount of gas is required at a relatively low pressure.

Centrifugal compressors are more commonly used due to their versatility: they can compress a wide range of flows to a high discharge pressure. The stable operation of axial and centrifugal compressors is limited by surge and choke. Surge is a violent flow reversal that occurs when the process restricts the compressor flow below a certain minimum value. Choke occurs when the process does not create enough restriction to the compressor flow and the compressor operates at its maximum flow for a given performance level.

Control systems are available to protect the compressor from surge, but not always from choke. Investigation of several catastrophic failures using diagnostics tools point to choke not surge as the root cause of the failure due to fatigue of a rotating blade or fixed vane. Operation in deep choke, especially of axial compressors during unloaded operation, therefore, should be avoided.

The effect of choke in centrifugal compressors is generally overlooked and is typically of no major concern. This is in great part due to the natural shape of the performance curve that represents a significant change in flow from the limit of surge to the limit of choke Figure 1. In axial compressors, however, this distance is significantly less Figure 2. The more stages a compressor has, the higher the pressure ratio but the smaller the operational margin between surge and choke regions.

Figure 2 shows the performance curves of a stage axial compressor. The operational margin of a performance curve is significantly less than the one of a 6-stage centrifugal compressor shown in Figure 1. OEMs are not always clear about the precise location of the choke line as most attention is given to the surge line.

Dynamic Compressors: Centrifugal and Axial Compressors

The same mistake is transferred to control systems, which focus exclusively on protection from surge. However, ignoring the effect of choke in axial compressors has cost refinery owners months of production loss due to the catastrophic failure of the axial main air blower MABone the most critical pieces of machinery in the refinery.

axial compressor

Compressor choke or stonewall is an unstable operating condition, which occurs when the compressor is operating at low discharge pressure and high f low rate. This leads to increased gas velocity in the compressor. The increase in gas velocity occurs until it reaches sonic velocity or resonance at the blade throat Mach 1. During choke, the flow channels between blade rows may experience blockage effects. Choke can occur at any performance level, i. Although the choke increases with the performance level, long-term operation even at low-performance level in a deep-choke condition can be damaging due to its low visibility and cumulative effect.

Choke is difficult to detect by conventional vibration monitoring systems. When a compressor transits back and forth from the stable area to the choke area, a minor change in noise frequency can sometimes be heard specially at higher performance levels. Currently, no dedicated instruments are used for choke detection. Therefore, an axial compressor can be operating in a deep choke condition for a long period of time during unload condition at low performance levels low speed or closed VSV position without being noticed by the machinery operator.

The opposite is true when the compressor is operating in surge condition. The negative impact on the process and the potentially damaging effects of compressor surge are clearly observable. The cumulative effect of choke means that the most vulnerable part rotor blade or stator vane has a limited number of cycles prior to failure by fatigue.

Fracture eventually occurs during operation at high load. Therefore, choke can easily go unnoticed for years until it produces enough cumulative cycles leading to component failure by fatigue. In the case of an FCCU, operation in choke condition typically occurs during the startup of the MAB prior to or during the dry-out period. Since the process is not yet ready to accept the full amount of air, no attention is given to the fact that the compressor requires some back-pressure to operate safely.

Consequently, no pressure resistance is created from the process side. Further, the anti-surge valve may remain open.Elliott is working at full capacity with normal operations and no interruption of service to support our customers. Please contact us with any questions or concerns. Over the course of more than 40 years, Elliott has designed and built hundreds of axial compressors.

Elliott's axial compressors are often paired with Elliott power recovery expanders to supply combustion air to the fluid catalytic cracker process FCC. Elliott designs the aerodynamic components to maintain high efficiency over broad operating ranges, resulting in significant energy savings.

Elliott axials feature robust, high-efficiency blading for reduced plant emissions. Axial compressors also offer weight and size advantages that translate into savings on foundation and support structures and floor space requirements. COVID Update Elliott is working at full capacity with normal operations and no interruption of service to support our customers. English Japanese Russian Simplified Chinese.

axial compressor

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Axial Compressors

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You may personalize your experience at any time during your visit. Axial compressors are a type of dynamic compressor. Unlike displacement compressors, dynamic compressors work under constant pressure and are affected by changes in external conditions such as inlet temperature.

As the name suggests, these compressors have an axial flow; the air or gas passes along the compressor shaft through rows of rotating and stationary blades.

The blades convert the kinetic energy to pressure, and a balancing drum is built in to offset the axial thrust. These compressors are typically smaller and lighter than their centrifugal counterparts, yet they operate at higher speeds. Like other dynamic compressors, axial compressors are used for constant, high volume flow rates at moderate pressure, like ventilation systems.

Because they have a high rotation speed, axial compressors work well when paired with gas turbines for electricity generation and aircraft propulsion. But while all air compressors create the same end product, the principles behind different designs vary widely. Learn more about the mechanics that drive air compressors by subscribing to our weekly newsletterand check out our range of compressors now available for purchase online.

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axial compressor

Aviation Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for aircraft pilots, mechanics, and enthusiasts. It only takes a minute to sign up. Is there a particular difference? The way they're overhauled is the same? I mean do we use the same overhauling methods? The blades are shaped completely differently.

Typically a centrifugal compressor is one solid piece that looks like a turbocharger and an axial compressor is a flat disk that looks like a fan with individually manufactured blades inserted, though axial compressor disks with integral blades "blisk" is starting to be used.

Axial Flow and Combined Axial-Radial Flow Compressors

Here are compressor pics that show how they are used:. Fifteen stage axial compressor. A radial compressor can usually generate higher pressure in a single stage so it's usually simpler, while an axial compressor is easier to stack in multiple stages to get much higher pressure ratios. The main difference is in how they operate, vs how they are maintained.

Flow through a centrifugal compressor is turned perpendicular to the axis of rotation, while air in an axial compressor flows parallel to the axis of rotation. Axial blades are airfoils that compress air by forcing it aft into a converging space via downwash the same as a wing generates lift by downwash.

Efficient, but sensitive to angle of attack and aerodynamic stall, like a regular wing, so therefore sensitive to flow disruptions. A centrifugal compressor is spinning duct that forces air into a converging space purely by centrifugal force imparted to air within it as it spins.

Less efficient, but relatively insensitive to flow disruptions and way easier to make. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. What is the difference between axial compressor blades and centrifugal compressor blades?

Ask Question. Asked 2 years ago. Active 2 months ago. Viewed 13k times. Vi Z Vi Z 71 1 1 gold badge 1 1 silver badge 3 3 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Pilothead Pilothead Geoff Geoff 1, 1 1 gold badge 6 6 silver badges 24 24 bronze badges. John K John K Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog.

Featured on Meta. Feedback on Q2 Community Roadmap.Axial flow and axial-radial flow isothermal compressors are designed to handle large volume flows of air within a relatively small casing while maintaining excellent thermodynamic efficiency. Casings are fabricated and can have either axial or radial inlet. Performance control is achieved by either speed variation or adjustable guide vanes, or a combination of both. Our experience in designing and building these compressors dates back to Combined axial-radial compressors are offered for applications requiring higher pressure ratios and intercooling.

The design of this product family incorporates an axial process stage followed by one or more centrifugal process stages.

The design principle common to both compressors designs is a modular concept based on finely graded machine elements and flow components that have proven their reliability over decades of operation. Axial compressors can be packaged together with drivers, speed gears, lube oil systems and other auxiliaries for ease of installation and commissioning. Items can alternatively be shipped individually where installation on a concrete table plate, for example, is preferred.

Electric motors, steam turbines or hot gas expanders, depending on process and available energy sources. Our high voltage motors are available in virtually any imaginable configuration and offer power ranges up MW and higher.

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As a market leader for industrial steam turbines, we offer a comprehensive range of reliable and versatile steam turbines for the power output range from 2 to MW.

Our product and solution finder can help you determine which offerings in our portfolio are best suited to your application needs. The tool allows you to access both Siemens and Dresser-Rand information. This page requires JavaScript in order to be fully functional and displayed correctly. Please enable JavaScript and reload the site. It looks like you are using a browser that is not fully supported.

Please note that there might be constraints on site display and usability. For the best experience we suggest that you download the newest version of a supported browser:. Image Gallery Axial flow and combined axial-radial compressors. Package Options. Axial Design Features. Axial-Radial Design Features. Contact Us. Can't find what you're looking for?

Try our Product and Solution Finder! Try the Product and Solution Finder. Please allow JavaScript This page requires JavaScript in order to be fully functional and displayed correctly. How to enable JavaScript. Please use another Browser It looks like you are using a browser that is not fully supported.Most modern passenger and military aircraft are powered by gas turbine engines, which are also called jet engines.

There are several different types of jet engines, but all jet engines have some parts in common. All jet engines have a compressor to increase the pressure of the incoming air before it enters the burner. Compressor performance has a large influence on total engine performance. There are two main types of compressors used in modern jet engines; axial compressors are discussed on this slide, and centrifugal compressors are discussed on another slide.

In the axial compressor, the air flows parallel to the axis of rotation. The compressor is composed of several rows of airfoil cascades.

axial compressor

Some of the rows, called rotorsare connected to the central shaft and rotate at high speed. Other rows, called statorsare fixed and do not rotate. The job of the stators is to increase pressure and keep the flow from spiraling around the axis by bringing the flow back parallel to the axis.

In the figure on the right, we see a picture of the rotors of an axial compressor. The stators of this compressor are connected to the outer casing, which has been removed and is not shown. At the upper left is a picture of a single rotor stage for a different compressor so that you can see how the individual blades are shaped and aligned.

At the bottom of the figure is a computer generated figure of an entire axial compressor with both rotors and stators. The compressor is attached to a shaft which is connected to the power turbine on the right end of the blue shaft.

Here is an animated version of the axial compressor:.

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How does an axial compressor work? The details are quite complex because the blade geometries and the resulting flows are three dimensional, unsteady, and can have important viscous and compressibility effects. Each blade on a rotor or stator produces a pressure variation much like the airfoil of a spinning propeller. But unlike a propeller blade, the blades of an axial compressor are close to one another, which seriously alters the flow around each blade. Compressor blades continuously pass through the wakes of upstream blades that introduce unsteady flow variations.

Compressor designers must rely on wind tunnel testing and sophisticated computational models to determine the performance of an axial compressor. The performance is characterized by the pressure ratio across the compressor CPRthe rotational speed of the shaft necessary to produce the pressure increase, and an efficiency factor that indicates how much additional work is required relative to an ideal compressor.

There are additional important compressor topics, like stall and surgethat will be added to these pages in the future. Here is an animated version of the axial compressor: How does an axial compressor work? Beginner's Guide Home Page.


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